Basic Characteristic of Lifecycle Process Models
All the activities of a product are included in the Lifecycle processes. From the idea of developing a business model to its development and usage, all form a part of the Lifecycle process. However, there are different models that can be used in software engineering. All such models have adapted to the development process required for a successful development and use of products. The two most common models are mentioned below.
Sequential Model – Here one activity follows the other activities resulting in a sequence of activities. Here, each activity is dependent on the previous activity. Waterfall model or a V model is a well-known example of a sequential model.
Evolutionary Model – It includes parallel execution of all the activities along with the requirement. Here, all the activities are independent of the other activity. Spiral model is well known example of an evolutionary model.
The various stages in the lifecycle of process model are mentioned below.
- Requirements analysis and specification
- System and software design.
- Implementation and unit testing
- System Integration
- System verification and validation
- Operation support and maintenance
Requirements analysis and specification
It is the first and most important stage of the lifecycle. It specifies what a system is supposed to do.
System and software design
It includes the software architecture of the overall system. In addition, it includes identification and description of the system abstractions and the relationships.
Implementation and unit testing
The design constitute of smaller units. Testing a unit is much easier than testing the entire system. Unit testing follows the implementation.
System integration is the process of integrating system units.
System verification and validation
System verification and validation is the method of checking the correctness of the complete system with its requirements.
Operation support and maintenance
A set of activities are required to check the expected system performance. A disposal activity is required, which includes replacing a system with another system or a complete termination. Different models have different types of system life cycle. For example, sequential models are used for large systems where there are various stakeholders and revolutionary models are ideal for smaller system using newer technologies. These models use faster approach and can show faster result than exponential model.
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