Difference between Defect, Error, Bug, Failure and Fault!

Difference between Defect, Error, Bug, Failure and Fault
Testing is the process of identifying defects, where a defect is any variance between actual and expected results. “A mistake in coding is called Error, error found by tester is called Defect, defect accepted by development team then it is called Bug, build does not meet the requirements then it Is Failure.”
DEFECT:  It can be simply defined as a variance between expected and actual. Defect is an error found AFTER the application goes into production. It commonly refers to several troubles with the software products, with its external behavior or with its internal features. In other words Defect is the difference between expected and actual result in the context of testing.  It is the deviation of the customer requirement.

Defect can be categorized into the following:

Wrong: When requirements are implemented not in the right way. This defect is a variance from the given specification. It is Wrong!
Missing:  A requirement of the customer that was not fulfilled. This is a variance from the specifications, an indication that a specification was not implemented, or a requirement of the customer was not noted correctly.
Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. This is always a variance from the specification, but may be an attribute desired by the user of the product. However, it is considered a defect because it’s a variance from the existing requirements.
ERROR: An error is a mistake, misconception, or misunderstanding on the part of a software developer. In the category of developer we include software engineers, programmers, analysts, and testers. For example, a developer may misunderstand a de-sign notation, or a programmer might type a variable name incorrectly – leads to an Error. It is the one which is generated because of wrong login, loop or due to syntax. Error normally arises in software; it leads to change the functionality of the program.
BUG: A bug is the result of a coding error. An Error found in the development environment before the product is shipped to the customer. A programming error that causes a program to work poorly, produce incorrect results or crash. An error in software or hardware that causes a program to malfunction. Bug is terminology of Tester.
FAILURE: A failure is the inability of a software system or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements. When a defect reaches the end customer it is called a Failure. During development Failures are usually observed by testers.
FAULT: An incorrect step, process or data definition in a computer program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner. A fault is introduced into the software as the result of an error. It is an anomaly in the software that may cause it to behave incorrectly, and not according to its specification. It is the result of the error.
The software industry can still not agree on the definitions for all the above. In essence, if you use the term to mean one specific thing, it may not be understood to be that thing by your audience.
Image Credit armsreliability.com

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